CONTENT/DESCRIPTION

This course is meant to expose the student to the elementary part of Atmospheric Physics. It introduces the trigonometric relationships between the sun-earth line and the position of an inclined surface. Because this material does not require a priori knowledge of any aspect of solar radiation, it was considered appropriate at the beginning. The characteristics of blackbody radiation, will be discussed, it focuses on the solar constant and .its spectral distribution. It also deals with extraterrestrial radiation. Detailed formulations treating instantaneous, hourly and daily quantities of radiation incident on inclined planes are presented.

A cloudless-sky atmosphere and its optics will be treated. The first part of this section describes earth's cloudless-sky atmosphere, concentration of the various molecules, vertical distribution of ozone and its seasonal variation, vertical distribution of water vapor, evaluation

of the perceptible water through its partial pressure or dew-point temperature,

and description of the aerosols.

 

CONTACT SCHEDULE: Friday 10am-12pm

Week I: INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE.

 At the end of the lectures, students will have an overview of the course; describe the various definitions, concepts and terminologies of units, dimensions and vectors.

 

Week II:  SUN-EARTH LINE AND THE POSITION

This week, we discuss the physics of the sun, the nature of the radiant energy emanating from its surface, spectral distribution, and the total quantity of this energy arriving just outside the earth's atmosphere. It introduces the trigonometric relationships between the sun-earth line and the position of an inclined surface. Because this material does not require a priori knowledge of any aspect of solar radiation, it was considered appropriate at the beginning.

 

 

 

Week III: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BLACKBODY RADIATION

In this week, the radiation from the sun will be compared with

that from a blackbody at an equivalent temperature. Therefore, it is useful

to note down some fundamentals of blackbody emission.

 

WEEK IV: EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION.

it focuses on the solar constant and .its spectral distribution. It also deals with Detailed formulations treating instantaneous, hourly and daily quantities of radiation incident on inclined planes are presented.

 

 

WEEK V: A CLOUDLESS-SKY ATMOSPHERE AND ITS OPTICS

The rate of energy propagation in a given direction is required. This is described in terms of the intensity of radiation. In order to discuss intensity. It is necessary to explain the concept of solid angle. The solid angle is defined as the ratio of the area dS of a spherical surface to the square of its radius R.

 

WEEK VI: EARTH'S CLOUDLESS-SKY ATMOSPHERE

A knowledge of solar distribution provides a design input for the better thermal environment of a spacecraft and for the selection of suitable materials exposed to solar radiation. The spectral distribution of radiation arriving on the surface of the earth is indeed a function of its extraterrestrial distribution and the atmospheric constituents.

 

 

WEEK VII: MID-SEMESTER ASSESSMENT

Students will be examined in the areas that have so far been covered in the Semester. This will afford students an opportunity of a revision of all topics that have already been taken.

 

WEEK VIII: CONCENTRATION OF THE VARIOUS MOLECULES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

The actual composition and concentration of the constituents of clean,air

vary with geographic location, elevation, and season.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WEEK IX: VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF OZONE AND ITS SEASONAL VARIATION

In the upper atmosphere, ozone is created mainly by ultraviolet solar radiation. On the ground, it is formed through decomposition of nitrogen oxide that enters the atmosphere from factory smoke and forest fires,

 

WEEK X: VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER VAPOR, EVALUATION OF THE PERCEPTIBLE WATER

 

Water can exist in the atmosphere in three states, as gas, liquid, and ice. Water in gaseous state is called water vapor. The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere can be defined in a number of ways.

 

 

WEEK XI: DESCRIPTION OF AEROSOLS.

An aerosol is a small solid or liquid particle that remains suspended in the air and follows the motion of the air within certain broad limits. Obviously, rain, snow, and hail are not aerosol particles.

 

WEEK XII: REVISION EXERCISE

This week is specifically left for revision of all the topics and subtopics covered during the course. Students are required to ask any question related to the course while the lecturer will also ask the students questions to determine the level of understanding of the course. The revision is expected to present to the students the practical approach to the field of mechanics.

 

 

The following are resource materials for further reading

REQUIRED TEXTS

 

 

Reading List:

1. Muhammad Iqbal 2nd Edition: Introduction to solar radiation  

 

Methods of Grading

S/N

Type of Grading

Score (%)

1

Participation in class

10

2

Assignments

10

3

Test

10

4

Final examination

70

5

Total

100

 


The laboratory course consists of a group of experiments that were drawn from different areas of physics such as;

Optics

Circuit Theory

Electromagnetism

Mechanics

Modern Physics.

A research project and dissertation to be undertaken on any topic in physics or electronics. Each Student will be given an opportunity to present a seminar on their research works.

 


Wave phenomena; Acoustical waves; the harmonic oscillator; waves on a string; energy in wave motion; longitudinal waves; standing waves; group and phase velocity; Doppler effect; Physical Optics; Spherical waves; interference and diffraction, thin films; crystal diffraction, diffraction grating, polarization, Malus’ law, interference, holography; dispersion and scattering. Geometrical Optics; Waves and rays; reflection at a spherical surface, thin lenses, optical lenses; mirrors and prisms.


CONTENT/DESCRIPTION

This course is meant to expose the student to the elementary part of University Physics. It duels more on the branch of Physics called Mechanics. Topics like Units, vectors, fundamental laws of mechanics are well treated with its application to day to day life challenges. Motion in a plane is used to explain the concept of conservation laws. Work Energy and power are also compared. Elasticity, Hooke’s young’s shear and bulk modulus and Hydrostatics are explained and experimented.    

COURSE DETAILS

Units and  Dimensions, Vector and scalars.  Kinematics;  Fundamental laws of mechanics. Rotational dynamics and angular momentum. Conservation laws. Rectilinear motion. Velocity, acceleration, projectile. Motion in a plane. Angular velocity and acceleration, linear momentum. Circular motion. Newton’s laws of motion. Force, frictional forces, mass, translational and rotational equilibrium. Work energy and power, simple harmonic motion. Elasticity, Hooke’s law, young’s shear and bulk modulus. Hydrostatics    

Week 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE.

 At the end of the lectures, students will have an overview of the course; describe the various definitions, concepts and terminologies of units, dimensions and vectors

Week 2:  QUANTITIES

Determination of relationship between quantities using dimensional analysis Addition and subtraction of vectors.

Week 3: UNIT VECTORS, PRODUCT OF VECTORS, POSITION

Unit vectors, component of vectors    Two kinds of product of vectors:- scalar and vector product

WEEK 4: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION IN UNIT VECTOR NOTATION.

Calculation of position and velocity in unit vector notation.   Calculation of acceleration in-unit vector notation

WEEK 5: KINEMATICS; MOTION ON A STRAIGHT LINE (ONE DIMENSIONAL),

Introduction of Kinematics. Motion on a straight line (one dimensional). At the end of the lectures, Students will have an understanding of what Kinematics is all about.

WEEK 6: ONE DIMENSIONAL MOTION UNDER CONSTANT ACCELERATION, FREE FALLING BODY

Motion on a straight line (one dimensional), one-dimensional motion under constant acceleration and free-falling body will be explained and formulas will be derived. Free falling body One-dimensional motion under constant acceleration

WEEK 7: MID-SEMESTER ASSESSMENT

Students will be examined in the areas that have so far been covered in the Semester. This will afford students an opportunity of a revision of all topics that have already been taken.

 WEEK  8: MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS; PROJECTILE, MAXIMUM HEIGHT AND RANGE OF A PROJECTILE,

At the end of the lectures, Students will be introduced to formulas associated with motion in two dimensions and motion of a rigid body.. Motion in two dimensions; projectile. Maximum height and range of a projectile

WEEK 9: ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY AND ROTATION WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION

Rotation of a rigid body with constant angular acceleration. Rotation of a rigid body

WEEK 10: FORCE AND INTERACTIONS, NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

Force and interactions. Newton’s first law of motion. Newton’s second and third laws of motion, kinetic and static friction. At the end of the lectures, students will have an understanding of what Newton’s second and third laws of motion are all about and the effect of kinetic and static friction on objects. Newton’s second and third laws of motion. Kinetic and static friction. At the end of the lectures, students will have an understanding of what force is and Newton’s first law of motion.

WEEK 11: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY, WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE, WORK DONE BY A VARIABLE FORCE: HOOKE’S LAW    

At the end of the lectures, students will know what conservation of energy, work done by a constant force and work are done by a variable force are all about.     Conservation of energy, work done by a constant force. Work is done by a variable force: Hooke’s law    

WEEK 12: REVISION EXERCISE

This week is specifically left for revision of all the topics and subtopics covered during the course. Students are required to ask any question related to the course while the lecturer will also ask the students questions to determine the level of understanding of the course. The revision is expected to present to the students the practical approach to the field of mechanics.

 

The following are resource materials for further reading

REQUIRED TEXTS

Reading List:

1. University Physics 12th Edition

2. Fundamentals of Physics 2nd Edition

3. Advanced Physics 2nd Edition

 

Methods of Grading

S/N

Type of Grading

Score (%)

1

Participation in class

10

2

Assignments

10

3

Test

10

4

Final examination

70

5

Total

100

 

 


The chemical physics of semiconductors, preparation, purification, growth of simple crystals, evaluation of chemical structural properties, doping, and effects on mechanical and metallurgical properties. 

Thermodynamic and kinetic consideration in crystal growth from met and by chemical vapour transport techniques. 

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photograph, photoluminescence and mass spectroscopy and measurements of electrical properties. 

Processing of semiconductor materials for device fabrication. Formation of p-n junction luminescence and luminescent materials, photo-emissive and photoconductive materials. 

Materials for IC’s and their fabrication. Relevant items/ device of commercial interest to be handled

The hydrogen atom. Relativistic effects and spin. Identical particles and symmetry. Many electron atoms. Coupling schemes and vectors model. Zeeman effects, Hyperfine structure. The diatomic molecule, the Frank Condon principle. X-ray diffraction. Microwave methods. Resonance phenomena; ES, MMR and optical pumping and Mossbauer scattering

Design and characteristics of vacuum systems. Different types of vacuum pumps and their uses, measurement of low pressure, different types of pressure gauges, use of valves and other vacuum materials, industrial uses of vacuum systems, vacuum heating, furnaces, induction heating, electron bombardment heating. Vacuum evaporation by various means, evaporation sources and techniques, substrate and surfaces preparation for thin firm deposition in vacuum. Epitaxial grow processes. Heat treatment for thin film, compatibility of film and substrates, sputtering techniques, deposition of thin insulating films by r.f. sputtering, preparation and use of masks for thin film deposition. Characterization and application of thin films. Relevant items/ device of commercial interest to be handled